Laravel ACL

ACL stands for Access Control List. ACL roles and permissions are very important if you are making big application to implement User Roles and Permissions(ACL) using spatie/laravel-permission composer package.


Laravel Permission

Laravel permission allows you to manage user permissions and roles in a database.


Installation

This package can be used with Laravel 6.0 or higher.

Please follow these steps and you should be ready to start with Laravel Permission:

  1. Consult the Prerequisites page for important considerations regarding your User models!
  2. This package publishes a config/permission.php file. If you already have a file by that name, you must rename or remove it.
  3. You can install the package via composer:
  4. composer require spatie/laravel-permission
  5. Optional: The service provider will automatically get registered. Or you may manually add the service provider in your config/app.php file:
  6. 'providers' => [
      ...
      Spatie\Permission\PermissionServiceProvider::class,
    ];
  7. You should publish the migration and the config/permission.php config file with below command:
  8. php artisan vendor:publish --provider="Spatie\Permission\PermissionServiceProvider"
  9. NOTE: If you are using UUIDs, see the Advanced section of the docs on UUID steps, before you continue. It explains some changes you may want to make to the migrations and config file before continuing. It also mentions important considerations after extending this package's models for UUID capability.
  10. Optional: If you are going to use teams feature, you have to update your config/permission.php config file and set 'teams' => true, if you want to use a custom foreign key for teams you must change team_foreign_key.
  11. Clear your config cache. This package requires access to the permission config. Generally it's bad practice to do config-caching in a development environment. If you've been caching configurations locally, clear your config cache with either of these commands:
  12. php artisan optimize:clear
    OR
    php artisan config:clear
  13. Run the migrations: After the config and migration have been published and configured, you can create the tables for this package by running:
  14. php artisan migrate
  15. Add the necessary trait to your User model: Consult the Basic Usage section of the docs for how to get started using the features of this package.

You can view the default config file contents at config/permission.php


Basic Usage

First, add the Spatie\Permission\Traits\HasRoles trait to your User model(s):

use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\User as Authenticatable;
use Spatie\Permission\Traits\HasRoles;

class User extends Authenticatable{
  use HasRoles;
  ...
}

This package allows for users to be associated with permissions and roles. Every role is associated with multiple permissions. A Role and a Permission are regular Eloquent models. They require a name and can be created like this:

use Spatie\Permission\Models\Role;
use Spatie\Permission\Models\Permission;

$role = Role::create(['name' => 'writer']);
$permission = Permission::create(['name' => 'edit articles']);

A permission can be assigned to a role using 1 of these methods:

$role->givePermissionTo($permission);
$permission->assignRole($role);

Multiple permissions can be synced to a role using one of these methods:

$role->syncPermissions($permissions);
$permission->syncRoles($roles);

A permission can be removed from a role using 1 of these methods:

$role->revokePermissionTo($permission);
$permission->removeRole($role);

If you're using multiple guards the guard_name attribute needs to be set as well. Read about it in the using multiple guards section of the readme.

The HasRoles trait adds Eloquent relationships to your models, which can be accessed directly or used as a base query:

// get a list of all permissions directly assigned to the user
$permissionNames = $user->getPermissionNames(); // collection of name strings
$permissions = $user->permissions; // collection of permission objects

// get all permissions for the user, either directly, or from roles, or from both
$permissions = $user->getDirectPermissions();
$permissions = $user->getPermissionsViaRoles();
$permissions = $user->getAllPermissions();

// get the names of the user's roles
$roles = $user->getRoleNames(); // Returns a collection

The HasRoles trait also adds a role scope to your models to scope the query to certain roles or permissions:

$users = User::role('writer')->get(); // Returns only users with the role 'writer'

The role scope can accept a string, a \Spatie\Permission\Models\Role object or an \Illuminate\Support\Collection object.

The same trait also adds a scope to only get users that have a certain permission.

$users = User::permission('edit articles')->get(); // Returns only users with the permission 'edit articles' (inherited or directly)

The scope can accept a string, a \Spatie\Permission\Models\Permission object or an \Illuminate\Support\Collection object.


Using artisan commands

Creating roles and permissions

You can create a role or permission from the console with artisan commands.

php artisan permission:create-role writer
php artisan permission:create-permission "edit articles" web

When creating roles you can also create and link permissions at the same time:

php artisan permission:create-role writer web "create articles|edit articles"

When creating roles with teams enabled you can set the team id by adding the --team-id parameter:

php artisan permission:create-role --team-id=1 writer
php artisan permission:create-role writer api --team-id=1
Displaying roles and permissions in the console

There is also a show command to show a table of roles and permissions per guard:

php artisan permission:show
Resetting the Cache

When you use the built-in functions for manipulating roles and permissions, the cache is automatically reset for you, and relations are automatically reloaded for the current model record.

If you need to manually reset the cache for this package, you may use the following artisan command:

php artisan permission:cache-reset

Again, it is more efficient to use the API provided by this package, instead of manually clearing the cache.


Using a middleware

Default Middleware

For checking against a single permission using can, you can use the built-in Laravel middleware provided by \Illuminate\Auth\Middleware\Authorize::class like this:

Route::group(['middleware' => ['can:publish articles']], function () {
  ...
});
Package Middleware

This package comes with RoleMiddleware, PermissionMiddleware and RoleOrPermissionMiddleware middleware. You can add them inside your app/Http/Kernel.php file.

protected $routeMiddleware = [
  ...
  'role' => \Spatie\Permission\Middlewares\RoleMiddleware::class,
  'permission' => \Spatie\Permission\Middlewares\PermissionMiddleware::class,
  'role_or_permission' => \Spatie\Permission\Middlewares\RoleOrPermissionMiddleware::class,
];

Then you can protect your routes using middleware rules:

Route::group(['middleware' => ['role:super-admin']], function () {
  ...
});

Route::group(['middleware' => ['permission:publish articles']], function () {
  ...
});

Route::group(['middleware' => ['role:super-admin','permission:publish articles']], function () {
  ...
});

Route::group(['middleware' => ['role_or_permission:super-admin|edit articles']], function () {
  ...
});

Route::group(['middleware' => ['role_or_permission:publish articles']], function () {
  ...
});

Alternatively, you can separate multiple roles or permission with a | (pipe) character:

Route::group(['middleware' => ['role:super-admin|writer']], function () {
  ...
});

Route::group(['middleware' => ['permission:publish articles|edit articles']], function () {
  ...
});

Route::group(['middleware' => ['role_or_permission:super-admin|edit articles']], function () {
  ...
});

You can protect your controllers similarly, by setting desired middleware in the constructor:

public function __construct(){
  $this->middleware(['role:super-admin','permission:publish articles|edit articles']);
}
public function __construct(){
  $this->middleware(['role_or_permission:super-admin|edit articles']);
}

Blade directives

Permissions

This package doesn't add any permission-specific Blade directives. Instead, use Laravel's native @can directive to check if a user has a certain permission.

@can('edit articles')
  ...
@endcan
OR
@if(auth()->user()->can('edit articles') && $some_other_condition)
  ...
@endif

You can use @can, @cannot, @canany, and @guest to test for permission-related access.

Roles

Additionally, if your reason for testing against Roles is for a Super-Admin, see the Defining A Super-Admin section of the docs.

If you actually need to test for Roles, this package offers some Blade directives to verify whether the currently logged in user has all or any of a given list of roles.

Optionally you can pass in the guard that the check will be performed on as a second argument.

Check for a specific role:

@role('writer')
  I am a writer!
@else
  I am not a writer...
@endrole

is the same as

@hasrole('writer')
  I am a writer!
@else
  I am not a writer...
@endhasrole

Check for any role in a list:

@hasanyrole($collectionOfRoles)
  I have one or more of these roles!
@else
  I have none of these roles...
@endhasanyrole
// or
@hasanyrole('writer|admin')
  I am either a writer or an admin or both!
@else
  I have none of these roles...
@endhasanyrole

Check for all roles:

@hasallroles($collectionOfRoles)
  I have all of these roles!
@else
  I do not have all of these roles...
@endhasallroles
// or
@hasallroles('writer|admin')
  I am both a writer and an admin!
@else
  I do not have all of these roles...
@endhasallroles

Alternatively, @unlessrole gives the reverse for checking a singular role, like this:

@unlessrole('does not have this role')
  I do not have the role
@else
  I do have the role
@endunlessrole

You can also determine if a user has exactly all of a given list of roles:

@hasexactroles('writer|admin')
  I am both a writer and an admin and nothing else!
@else
  I do not have all of these roles or have more other roles...
@endhasexactroles
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